_{4nm to in lbs. Torque Conversion Calculator. You can use this free torque conversion calculator to easily convert a range of torque measurement units including pound-force inches, Newton meters, kilogram-force centimeters, ounce-force inches, kilogram-force meters, among others. How to Convert Newton to Pound-force. 1 N = 0.2248089431 lbf 1 lbf = 4.4482216153 N. Example: convert 15 N to lbf: 15 N = 15 × 0.2248089431 lbf = 3.3721341465 lbf. Popular … }

_{24 Nm to Ft lbs conversion calculator quickly converts 24 Nm (newton-meters) into ft-lbs (foot-pounds) and vice versa. How to convert 24 Nm torque into ft lbs? 24 newton meters can be easily converted into ft-lbs by dividing 24 Nm by 1.356. So, 24 Nm / … Digital Torque-Measuring Screwdrivers. A green light and a beep alert you when you've reached 90% of your set torque, and a steady tone sounds once you've hit your target. Set your torque in cNm, cm- Kg, or in. - lbs. and quickly check the LCD for real-time measurements along the way. A red light warns if you begin to overtighten.More information from the unit converter. How many N-m in 1 lb-ft? The answer is 1.3558179483314. We assume you are converting between newton-meter and pound foot.You can view more details on each measurement unit: N-m or lb-ft The SI derived unit for torque is the newton meter. 1 newton meter is equal to 0.73756214927727 lb-ft. Note that rounding errors may occur, so always check the results. Rilpivirine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus Rilpivirine is used along with other medications to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in certain adults and children 12 years of age...Quick conversion chart of lbs in to N m. 1 lbs in to N m = 0.11298 N m. 5 lbs in to N m = 0.56492 N m. 10 lbs in to N m = 1.12985 N m. 20 lbs in to N m = 2.2597 N m. 30 lbs in to N m = 3.38954 N m. 40 lbs in to N m = 4.51939 N m. 50 lbs in to N m = 5.64924 N m. 75 lbs in to N m = 8.47386 N m.One pound-foot is the equivalent torque produced by a one pound-force acting one foot away (perpendicular distance) from the axis of rotation. Often in practice, foot-pound (ft-lb) is used in place of pound-foot (lb-ft), but you must exercise caution while doing so because foot-pound is a unit of energy (see our energy converter. To convert ...Convert 8.4 nm to in lbs. Newton Meters Check Answer Swap Units Inch Pounds . 8.4 Foot Pound Conversion. Inch Pounds: 74.3463 : Feet Pounds: 6.1992 : Relevant ...Instant free online tool for megapascal to pound-force/square inch conversion or vice versa. The megapascal [MPa] to pound-force/square inch conversion table and conversion steps are also listed. Also, explore tools to convert megapascal or pound-force/square inch to other pressure units or learn more about pressure conversions.Newton-meter. Definition: The newton-meter (N·m) is sometimes used as a unit of work or energy and in this context is equal to the joule, the SI unit of energy. In this use, it is defined as the energy transferred to an object by a one newton force acting on that object in the direction of its motion over a distance of one meter.29 Nm to Ft lbs conversion calculator quickly converts 29 Nm (newton-meters) into ft-lbs (foot-pounds) and vice versa. How to convert 29 Nm torque into ft lbs? 29 newton meters can be easily converted into ft-lbs by dividing 29 Nm by 1.356. So, 29 Nm / …1 Pound-inch (lb-in) is equal to 0.11298482933 newton-meter (N-m). To convert pound-inch to newton-meter, multiply the pound-inch value by 0.11298482933 or divide by 8.8507457676. For example, to convert 150 lb-in to N-m, multiply 150 by 0.11298482933, that makes 16.9477 N-m is 150 lb-in. pound-inch to newton-meter formula 4.6 nm to in lbs. 4.7 nm to in lbs. 4.8 nm to in lbs. 4.9 nm to in lbs. 4 nm to in lbs, Mycalcu online free Calculator for simple and advanced quick conversions. 5 N m to ft lb = 3.68781 ft lb. 10 N m to ft lb = 7.37562 ft lb. 20 N m to ft lb = 14.75124 ft lb. 30 N m to ft lb = 22.12686 ft lb. 40 N m to ft lb = 29.50249 ft lb. 50 N m to ft lb = 36.87811 ft lb. 75 N m to ft lb = 55.31716 ft lb. 100 N m to ft lb = 73.75621 ft lb.You can also contact us directly if you find any missing units or errors. The SI prefix "nano" represents a factor of 10 -9, or in exponential notation, 1E-9. So 1 nanometre = 10 -9 metre. Did you mean to convert from nm to in-lb? Do a quick conversion: 1 nanometres = 1.0E-9 in lb using the online calculator for metric conversions. How many foot-pounds are there in 33 newton meters? As we know 1 Nm = 1 / 1.356 ft-lbs, therefore, simply divide 33 newton-meters by 1.356 to get it converted into foot pounds. 33 Nm = 33 / 1.356 = 24.354 ft lbs. So, there are 24.354 foot-pounds in 33 newton meters. The 1000 lb Sisters are two sisters from Kentucky who have captured the hearts of viewers worldwide with their inspiring journey towards weight loss and improved health. Tammy and Amy Slaton have struggled with obesity for most of their liv... What is A Newton meter? But, the unit we’re gonna discuss is the Newton meter. The Newton meter is the SI-derived metric unit of torque and is also called the moment. It is equal to 1 Joule and …All you need to remember is that 1 Nm is equal to 0.7376 ft-lbs. The conversion table below might come in handy, should you need to convert the most fundamental values of torque.One foot pound is the work done by a force of one pounl acting through a distance of one foot, in the direction of the force. It equates to 1.355 817 948 331 4004 joules Newton-meters to Foot-pounds tableConvert 8 nm to in lbs. Newton Meters Check Answer Swap Units Inch Pounds . 8 Foot Pound Conversion. Inch Pounds: 70.806 : Feet Pounds: 5.904 : Relevant Calculators . ft lbs to Nm nm to ft lbs Foot Pounds to Inch Pounds Inch Pounds to Foot Pounds in lbs to nm nm to in lbs Pounds to Newtons Instant free online tool for foot-pound to newton meter conversion or vice versa. The foot-pound [ft*lbf] to newton meter [N*m] conversion table and conversion steps are also listed. Also, explore tools to convert foot-pound or newton meter to other energy units or learn more about energy conversions.More information from the unit converter. How many N/m in 1 lb/in? The answer is 175.126835. We assume you are converting between newton/metre and pound/inch.You can view more details on each measurement unit: N/m or lb/in The SI derived unit for surface tension is the newton/meter. 1 newton/meter is equal to 0.0057101471627692 …to configure workflow and routepoints. Workflow Type. Routepoint Identifer. Click here to configure reconnections. Maximum Reconnection Attempts. Reconnection Frequency (seconds) Idle timeout (seconds) Co-Browse Enabled. Look here for technical information about torque conversions carried by MSC Industrial Supply Co. How many foot-pounds is equal to 5 newton meters? 5 NM is equal to 3.69 ft-lbs. 5 Nm to ft-lbs calculator converts 5 newton meters into foot-pounds by dividing 5 Nm by 1.356. Therefore, to convert 5 Nm into ft-lbs, divide 5 newton pounds by …How many foot-pounds is equal to 5 newton meters? 5 NM is equal to 3.69 ft-lbs. 5 Nm to ft-lbs calculator converts 5 newton meters into foot-pounds by dividing 5 Nm by 1.356. Therefore, to convert 5 Nm into ft-lbs, divide 5 newton pounds by …When used in a text message or online, the acronym “LBS” usually means “laughing but serious.” When written in lower-case letters, the acronym “lbs” is most commonly the abbreviation for “pounds.”Simply divide 200 by 12: ft-lbs = 200 / 12 = 16.6667 ft-lbs. Therefore, 200 inch pounds equal to 16.6667 foot pounds. Using the simple formulas below, you can easily convert inch pounds to foot pounds. inch pounds to foot pounds conversion formula: ft-lbs = in-lbs * 0.08333. ft-lbs = in-lbs / 12.1 nm = 0.7375621493 ft lbs. Nm to ft lbs is newton meters to foot pounds energy converter. It converts units from nm to ft lbs or vice versa with a metric conversion chart.More information from the unit converter. How many N-m in 1 lb-ft? The answer is 1.3558179483314. We assume you are converting between newton-meter and pound foot.You can view more details on each measurement unit: N-m or lb-ft The SI derived unit for torque is the newton meter. 1 newton meter is equal to 0.73756214927727 lb-ft. Note that rounding errors may occur, so always check the results.Technical information ; 20 – IN-LB, 2,3 NM, Buna, EPDM, FKM, Silicone, Kalrez ; 30 – IN-LB, 3,4 NM, Buna, EPDM, FKM, Silicone, Kalrez, Tuf-Flex® ; 40 – IN-LB, 4,5 ...More information from the unit converter. How many N-m in 1 kg-m? The answer is 9.80665. We assume you are converting between newton-meter and kilogram meter.You can view more details on each measurement unit: N-m or kg-m The SI derived unit for torque is the newton meter. 1 newton meter is equal to 0.10197162129779 kg-m. Note that rounding …to configure workflow and routepoints. Workflow Type. Routepoint Identifer. Click here to configure reconnections. Maximum Reconnection Attempts. Reconnection Frequency (seconds) Idle timeout (seconds) Co-Browse Enabled. Look here for technical information about torque conversions carried by MSC Industrial Supply Co.26 Okt 2020 ... 62 in lbs. Front derailleur clamp, Campagnolo®, 7 Nm, 62 in lbs. Mavic®, 2.9~4 Nm, 26~35 in lbs. Shimano®, 5~7 Nm, 44~60 in lbs. SRAM®, 5~7 Nm ...Quick conversion chart of in-lb to newton meter. 1 in-lb to newton meter = 0.11298 newton meter. 5 in-lb to newton meter = 0.56492 newton meter. 10 in-lb to newton meter = 1.12985 newton meter. 20 in-lb to newton meter = 2.2597 newton meter. 30 in-lb to newton meter = 3.38954 newton meter. 40 in-lb to newton meter = 4.51939 newton meter. 4 Nm to Ft lbs conversion calculator quickly converts 4 Nm (newton-meters) into ft-lbs (foot-pounds) and vice versa. How to convert 4 Nm torque into ft lbs? 4 newton meters can be easily converted into ft-lbs by dividing 4 Nm by 1.356. So, 4 Nm / 1.356 = 2.952 Nm.easyTorque SoftFinish Screwdriver Handle 8.0 In/lbs - 0.9Nm Sale price $56.70 Regular price $63.00. Add to cart Add to cart. SKU: 28586 Torque Set Adjustment Tool Sale price $6.88 Regular price $7.65. Add to cart Add to cart. SKU: 28500 ESD Safe SoftFinish TorqueVario Handle 0.040 - 0.46 NmQuick conversion chart of newton-meter to in-lb. 1 newton-meter to in-lb = 8.85075 in-lb. 5 newton-meter to in-lb = 44.25373 in-lb. 10 newton-meter to in-lb = 88.50746 in-lb. 15 newton-meter to in-lb = 132.76119 in-lb. 20 newton-meter to in-lb = 177.01492 in-lb. 25 newton-meter to in-lb = 221.26865 in-lb.Inch-Pound : The inch-pound (Abbreviation: in-lb) is a measurement unit of energy which is equal to one-twelfth of a foot-pound. Foot-Pound : The foot-pound (symbol: ft•lb) is a measurement unit of energy which is equivalent to 1.3558179483314 joules. It is defined as the amount of energy expended in applying a force of one pound-force through a … A pound-inch (lb·in or lbf·in) is a unit of torque. One pound-inch is the torque created by one pound force acting at a perpendicular distance of one inch from a pivot point. This tool converts pound inch to newton meter (lb·in to nm) and vice versa. 1 pound inch ≈ 0.113 newton meter. The user must fill one of the two fields and the ...Convert 8.4 nm to in lbs. Newton Meters Check Answer Swap Units Inch Pounds . 8.4 Foot Pound Conversion. Inch Pounds: 74.3463 : Feet Pounds: 6.1992 : Relevant ... To convert pounds to kilograms, the formula “lbs / 2.2 = kilograms” is used. Converting pounds to kilograms is not as complicated as doing other metric conversions, because both measurements are standard units of mass, the conversion is qui...Convert any Ratchet or Breaker Bar into a Digital Torque Measuring Tool with the 3/8'' Digital Torque Wrench, 4Nm to 203 Nm / 3.68 to 150 ft-lbs.Nm to ft lbs is newton meters to foot pounds energy converter. It converts units from nm to ft lbs or vice versa with a metric conversion chart. EasyUnitConverter.com. ... 4 nm = 2.9502485972 ft lb : 5 nm = 3.6878107465 ft lb : 6 nm = 4.4253728958 ft lb : 7 nm = 5.1629350451 ft lb : 8 nm = 5.9004971944 ft lb :1 N-m to lb-in = 8.85075 lb-in 5 N-m to lb-in = 44.25373 lb-in 10 N-m to lb-in = 88.50746 lb-in 15 N-m to lb-in = 132.76119 lb-in 20 N-m to lb-in = 177.01492 lb-in 25 N-m to lb-in = 221.26864 lb-in 30 N-m to lb-in = 265.52237 lb-in 40 N-m to lb-in = 354.02983 lb-in 50 N-m to lb-in = 442.53729 lb-in See more5 newton meters to foot pounds = 3.68781 foot pounds. 10 newton meters to foot pounds = 7.37562 foot pounds. 20 newton meters to foot pounds = 14.75124 foot pounds. 30 newton meters to foot pounds = 22.12686 foot pounds. 40 newton meters to foot pounds = 29.50249 foot pounds. 50 newton meters to foot pounds = 36.87811 foot pounds.Convert 6 nm to in lbs. Newton Meters Check Answer Swap Units Inch Pounds . 6 Foot Pound Conversion. Inch Pounds: 53.1045 : Feet Pounds: 4.428 : Relevant Calculators . ft lbs to Nm nm to ft lbs Foot Pounds to Inch Pounds Inch Pounds to Foot Pounds in lbs to nm nm to in lbs Pounds to Newtons 4 NM (Newton Meters) is equal to 2.950248596 LB FT (Foot Pounds) 5 NM (Newton Meters) is equal to 3.687810745 LB FT (Foot Pounds) 6 NM (Newton Meters) is equal to 4.425372894 LB FT (Foot Pounds)Instant free online tool for newton meter to inch-ounce conversion or vice versa. The newton meter [N*m] to inch-ounce [in*ozf] conversion table and conversion steps are also listed.Advertisement Airships are called lighter-than-air (LTA) craft because to generate lift, they use gases that are lighter than air. The most common gas in use today is helium, which has a lifting capacity of 0.064 lb/ft3 (1.02 kg/m3). Hydrog...1 N/m to lbs/in = 0.00571 lbs/in 10 N/m to lbs/in = 0.0571 lbs/in 50 N/m to lbs/in = 0.28551 lbs/in 100 N/m to lbs/in = 0.57101 lbs/in 200 N/m to lbs/in = 1.14203 lbs/in 500 N/m to …First Name*. Last Name*. Email*. Phone Number*. 504 N. King Street. Our yarn conversion calculator makes it easy to select the right yarn size and measurement. Enter your custom data and view the yarn conversion chart.More information from the unit converter. How many N-m in 1 lb-ft? The answer is 1.3558179483314. We assume you are converting between newton-meter and pound foot.You can view more details on each measurement unit: N-m or lb-ft The SI derived unit for torque is the newton meter. 1 newton meter is equal to 0.73756214927727 lb-ft. Note …Jul 3, 2023 · 1 kgf-cm = 0.09807 Nm = 0.07233 ft-lbs. J/rad are also alternative units of torque, commonly used when you need the value of torque in calculations of work or power. These units are equivalent to Nm: 1 J/rad = 1 Nm = 0.738 ft-lbs. Kilopondometer is another unit of torque and energy, abbreviated as kp⋅m or kgm. Convert 3.4 nm to in lbs. Newton Meters Check Answer Swap Units Inch Pounds . 3.4 Foot Pound Conversion. Inch Pounds: 30.0926 : Feet Pounds: 2.5092 : Relevant ...Quick conversion chart of N-m to lb-in. 1 N-m to lb-in = 8.85075 lb-in. 5 N-m to lb-in = 44.25373 lb-in. 10 N-m to lb-in = 88.50746 lb-in. 15 N-m to lb-in = 132.76119 lb-in. 20 N-m to lb-in = 177.01492 lb-in. 25 N-m to lb-in = 221.26864 lb-in. 30 N-m to lb-in = 265.52237 lb-in. 40 N-m to lb-in = 354.02983 lb-in. Convert 8 nm to in lbs. Newton Meters Check Answer Swap Units Inch Pounds . 8 Foot Pound Conversion. Inch Pounds: 70.806 : Feet Pounds: 5.904 : Relevant Calculators . ft lbs to Nm nm to ft lbs Foot Pounds to Inch Pounds Inch Pounds to Foot Pounds in lbs to nm nm to in lbs Pounds to Newtons4 Nm to Ft lbs conversion calculator quickly converts 4 Nm (newton-meters) into ft-lbs (foot-pounds) and vice versa. How to convert 4 Nm torque into ft lbs? 4 newton meters can be easily converted into ft-lbs by dividing 4 Nm by 1.356. So, 4 Nm / 1.356 = 2.952 Nm.The answer is 0.112984825. We assume you are converting between newton-meter and inch-pound . You can view more details on each measurement unit: newton-meter or in …To convert pounds to kilograms, the formula “lbs / 2.2 = kilograms” is used. Converting pounds to kilograms is not as complicated as doing other metric conversions, because both measurements are standard units of mass, the conversion is qui...26 Okt 2020 ... 62 in lbs. Front derailleur clamp, Campagnolo®, 7 Nm, 62 in lbs. Mavic®, 2.9~4 Nm, 26~35 in lbs. Shimano®, 5~7 Nm, 44~60 in lbs. SRAM®, 5~7 Nm ...Quick conversion chart of newton-meter to in-lb. 1 newton-meter to in-lb = 8.85075 in-lb. 5 newton-meter to in-lb = 44.25373 in-lb. 10 newton-meter to in-lb = 88.50746 in-lb. 15 newton-meter to in-lb = 132.76119 in-lb. 20 newton-meter to in-lb = 177.01492 in-lb. 25 newton-meter to in-lb = 221.26865 in-lb. Where F is the clamping force (N, lbs) T is the torque applied to the bolt (N-mm, in-lb) K is the friction of the bolt contact Steel = .2; Cadmium = .161; Lubricated = .17; D is the diameter of the bolt ( mm, in ) To calculate clamping force, divide the bolt torque by the bolt friction constant, then multiply by the diameter of the bolt.To other units. Conversion table. For your website. 1 Pound-force inches = 0.113 Newton metres. 10 Pound-force inches = 1.1298 Newton metres. 2500 Pound-force inches = 282.46 Newton metres. 2 Pound-force inches = 0.226 Newton metres. 20 Pound-force inches = 2.2597 Newton metres. 5000 Pound-force inches = 564.92 Newton metres.The answer is 0.11298482904456. Note that rounding errors may occur, so always check the results. Use this page to learn how to convert between newton meters and inch lbs. … How many foot-pounds is equal to 5 newton meters? 5 NM is equal to 3.69 ft-lbs. 5 Nm to ft-lbs calculator converts 5 newton meters into foot-pounds by dividing 5 Nm by 1.356. Therefore, to convert 5 Nm into ft-lbs, divide 5 newton pounds by … For 3.5mm, 2.92mm, and 1.85mm recommended torque is 8 in-lbs. To connect 3.5 or 2.92 to SMA, 5 in-lbs. For 1 mm connectors, use 4 in.-lbs. By the way, to convert from inch-pounds to Newton-meters, multiply inch-pounds by 0.113. It is important to note that some interfaces like the Type N and TNC which can have a slotted or solid male housing ... Jul 3, 2023 · 1 kgf-cm = 0.09807 Nm = 0.07233 ft-lbs. J/rad are also alternative units of torque, commonly used when you need the value of torque in calculations of work or power. These units are equivalent to Nm: 1 J/rad = 1 Nm = 0.738 ft-lbs. Kilopondometer is another unit of torque and energy, abbreviated as kp⋅m or kgm. More information from the unit converter. How many N-m in 1 oz-in? The answer is 0.0070615518333333. We assume you are converting between newton-meter and ounce inch.You can view more details on each measurement unit: N-m or oz-in The SI derived unit for torque is the newton meter. 1 newton meter is equal to 141.61193227806 oz-in. Note that rounding errors may occur, so always check the results.10 foot pound to inch pounds, the result is 120 inch pounds: 10 inch pound to newton meters, the result is 1.12984825 newton meters: 10 newton meter to foot pounds, the result is 7.375621755694 foot pounds: 10 inch pound to foot pounds, the result is 0.8333 foot pounds: 10 foot pound to newton meters, the result is 13.558179 newton metersBuy High PrecisionTaiwan Manufacturing Digital Torque Screwdriver 0.05-4NM Four Kinds Of Torsion Unit Can Choose Peak/Trace Mode at Aliexpress for .Ans: 1 Inch-pound (In-lbs) is equal to 0.11298482933. So, to convert inch pounds to newton meters, you can simply use in lbs to nm calculator. Or can go for it manually by simply multiplying the given nm value by 0.11298482933 or by its shorter form as well (0.112984).1 in-lb = 0.113 Nm. inch pounds to newton meters converter. inch pounds to newton meters table. 1 in-lb = 1.12984825E-16 PJ. inch pounds to petajoules converter. inch pounds to petajoules table. 1 in-lb = 112984825000 pJ. inch pounds to picojoules converter. inch pounds to picojoules table.International Torque Measuring Systems. American ozf.in - ounce force inch (referred as inch-ounces) lbf.in - pound force inch (referred as inch-pounds)Foot-Pound : The foot-pound (symbol: ft•lb) is a measurement unit of energy which is equivalent to 1.3558179483314 joules. It is defined as the amount of energy expended in applying a force of one pound-force through a displacement of one foot. Commonly used in the Engineering and Gravitational Systems in United States customary and imperial ...First Name*. Last Name*. Email*. Phone Number*. 504 N. King Street. Our yarn conversion calculator makes it easy to select the right yarn size and measurement. Enter your custom data and view the yarn conversion chart. guest house for rent under dollar1000granny flat 2 car garage conversion floor plansjordan kudischkiser rose hill funeral home obituaries 4nm to in lbs gujarati news paper sandesh [email protected] & Mobile Support 1-888-750-2359 Domestic Sales 1-800-221-4880 International Sales 1-800-241-8706 Packages 1-800-800-5566 Representatives 1-800-323-2294 Assistance 1-404-209-3520. ... 4Nm, 12Nm and 30Nm sizes. • Supplied with standard rundown adapter (optional ... 4Nm (35IN/LB) ReadStar TT. RSTT2-0012-CRXXXX. 12Nm (106IN/LB) ReadStar TT.. travelling merchant stardew 1 N*m = 8.8507457916 in*lbf 1 in*lbf = 0.112984829 N*m Example: convert 15 N*m to in*lbf: 15 N*m = 15 × 8.8507457916 in*lbf = 132.761186874 in*lbf Popular Energy Unit Conversions kJ to kcal kcal to kJ kcal to cal cal to kcal J to kJ kJ to J cal to J J to cal ft lb to Nm Nm to ft lb Convert Newton Meter to Other Energy Units Newton Meter to JouleWhat is A Newton meter? But, the unit we're gonna discuss is the Newton meter. The Newton meter is the SI-derived metric unit of torque and is also called the moment. It is equal to 1 Joule and symbolized as "Nm". What is Inch pounds? On the other hand, the inch-pound is another unit of torque. mymercer canvaspublix super market at colonialtown 800 Newton Meters to Inch-pounds Force = 7080.5966. 20 Newton Meters to Inch-pounds Force = 177.0149. 900 Newton Meters to Inch-pounds Force = 7965.6712. 30 Newton Meters to Inch-pounds Force = 265.5224. 1,000 Newton Meters to Inch-pounds Force = 8850.7458. 40 Newton Meters to Inch-pounds Force = 354.0298. install shower drain without access belowunbelievable blackhead removal 2023 New Customers Can Take an Extra 30% off. There are a wide variety of options. 78.64Nm. 59ft-lb. 79.99Nm. Foot-pounds to Newton-meters (ft-lb to Nm) conversion calculator for Energy and Power conversions with additional tables and formulas.Convert newtons to lbs. Please provide values below to convert newton [N] to pound-force [lbf], or vice versa. From: newton: To: pound-force Newton. Definition: The newton (symbol: N) is the SI (International System of Units) derived unit of force. It is defined as 1 kilogram·meter/second 2.4 nm to in lbs, Mycalcu online free Calculator for simple and advanced quick conversions. }